2Utilitarianism is, strictly speaking, a type of consequentialism… Bernard Williams contends that utilitarianism (and consequentialism generally), rests upon an extreme notion of impartiality which focuses exclusively upon the consequences of our actions. I do not find that position plausible at all, but I should admit that I have no definitive objection to it, and that the proof would fail if it were correct. One explanation is the Integrity Explanation: we are not required to maximize the good because morality must make room for us to pursue our projects and interests. Request Permissions. discussions, reviews, prize essays and special issues. First, it will be shown that previous authors have not paid sufficient attention to ordinary morality’s conflicting pronouncements about agent-centered prerogatives. Hayden Ramsay, Beyond Virtue: Integrity and Morality:Beyond Virtue: Integrity and Morality. It should also be noted that most people assume that the existence of these agent-centered restrictions is unrelated to the truth of the Integrity Explanation, discussed below. According to the moral standards most of us accept and live by, morality generally permits us to refrain from promoting the good of others and instead engage in non-harmful projects of our own choice. 2. Against Maximizing Act-Consequentialism … The goal is to extend this work in two respects. Consequentialism is enticing but also seems overly demanding. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Its distinguished 23ff. Kagan's The Limits of Morality, pp. Bernard Williams, "Utilitarianism and Integrity". One explanation is the Integrity Explanation: we are not required to maximize the good because morality must make room for us to pursue our projects and interests. we are in these controversial circumstances we may not incessantly do the right thing because we simply don’t know what the right thing to do is. 9 John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism, in Utilitarianism and Other Essays, ed. Recently, though, various authors, including Bernard Williams and Samuel Scheffler, have proposed “Integrity Theories” that would vindicate this aspect of ordinary morality, at least in part. For a discussion of this position, see Hurley's, Paul ‘Scheffler's Argument for Deontology’, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 74 (1993). All Rights Reserved. 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The electronic version of The Philosophical Quarterly For example, many people agree that they must ruin their $300 shoes to save a baby drowning in a puddle, but resist the idea that they must give $300 to charity to save a starving baby in the developing world. Against Maximizing Act-Consequentialism (June 30, 2008). Summary Of Bernard WilliamsUtilitarianism And Integrity 1092 Words 5 Pages In Bernard Williams “Utilitarianism & Integrity” he begins by defining Utilitarianism as a philosophical theory that focuses on maximizing happiness as much as possible or in … See Harris's, John ‘Williams on Negative Responsibility and Integrity’, Philosophical Quarterly 24 (1974), for an argument that Williams is advocating something like the Integrity Explanation, as defined below. is available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com. Consequentialism is a moral doctrine stating that the right act in any given situation is the one that will produce the best overall outcome, as judged from an impersonal standpoint giving equal weight to the interests of everyone. JSTOR provides a digital archive of the print version of The Philosophical Abstract views reflect the number of visits to the article landing page. 20--50. 19 Another reason why defenders of the Integrity Theory might try to vindicate ordinary morality is that they are hoping that morality turns out to be lax – for any reason whatsoever – because they don't want to be compelled to make larger sacrifices than they do. 2; for Williams, ‘Integrity’, Utilitarianism: For and Against, ed. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. option. Parcourez la librairie en ligne la plus vaste au monde et commencez dès aujourd'hui votre lecture sur le Web, votre tablette, votre téléphone ou un lecteur d'e-books. Interpreting this passage is difficult. Instead of merely asserting that morality must not take away our integrity and leaving that notion undefined, he defends and elaborates the claim using an argument that may be briefly represented as follows: (i) each of us is concerned with our projects and interests out of proportion to their weight from an impersonal point of view, (ii) the having of this personal point of view is part of the nature of a person, and (iii) ‘the correct regulative principle for a thing depends on the nature of that thing’ (The Rejection of Consequentialism, p. 57). Check out using a credit card or bank account with. ), Consequentialism and its Critics. 5 This requirement is fraught with difficulty, since as is often noted, many people agree that they must make such sacrifices when the good is present to mind, but resist the principle when applied to goods that are ‘out of sight’. Bernard Williams - 1988 - In Samuel Scheffler (ed. See Shelly Kagan, The Limits of Morality (Oxford, 1989), esp. That value doesn't have a clear name in ordinary English, but it is plausibly described as ‘integrity’. 5 Comments » 5 Responses to “Consequentialism and Integrity (or: Why People Disagree About Iraq)” The answer to the objection is, that there has been ample time, namely, the whole past duration of the human species. b. Bernard Williams contends that utilitarianism (and consequentialism generally), rests upon an extreme notion of impartiality which focuses exclusively upon the consequences of our actions. I argue that this hope is unrealistic, because if any version of the Integrity Explanation is correct, morality will not contain broad permissions to refrain from promoting the good of others and do as we choose. In fact he specifically says he is not appealing to ‘integrity’ at all. Drawing upon work by Sartre and Williams, the paper argues that an explanation of He gives two scenarios of where two men face an ethical dilemma in efforts of demonstrating, The Trojan War : The Loss Of The Trojan War. 239ff. Oxford University Press USA publishes scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, children's books, business books, dictionaries, reference books, journals, text books and more. d. The theory fails to consider the fact that an agent has a right to stand up for what he believes in. ". Those complications are left aside here because the arguments of this article would work no matter how those issues are resolved. .. Quarterly. Alan Ryan (London, 1987), p. 295. However, some people believe that the Integrity Explanation could justify constraints. In Williams' case involving George, what does Williams think George should do if he is a utilitarian? 7 For example, Kagan has alleged that ordinary morality, properly understood, requires that we must promote either our own interests or the overall good. If 12 Of course, if we loaf our lives away, then we will have failed to fulfill our imperfect duty of beneficence, and hence our loafing (at some specific moment) will be part of a pattern which constitutes a moral failure. Deciding how to separate impermissible and permissible harms is obviously quite difficult. Whither Integrity II: Integrity and Impartial Morality. increasing specialism, it remains committed to publishing high quality See also Michael Slote, Common-Sense Morality and Consequentialism (London, 1985), ch.
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